How the solar panel works

Today monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels are so widespread that each user can order accessories and assemble and install photovoltaic panels on their own. Of course, the issue of price remains relevant, because solar panels are not at all a cheap option, but it is environmentally friendly. And the cost is getting cheaper every year. So everyone probably came up with the idea of ​​using such a source of electricity, but far from everyone knows the principle of the 100 watt solar panel –

The principle of operation of the solar battery

To understand how a solar battery works, you need to figure out what it consists of. Typically, a solar energy source consists of the following parts:

  1. DC generator (aka solar panel)
  2. Battery with charge control and an inverter that converts current into alternating current
  3. In turn, the panel consists of photovoltaic converters, which, in simple terms, transform solar energy into electrical energy. Most often these are polycrystalline or single crystal silicon batteries. The difference in efficiency and production technology.

The principle of operation of a solar power plant is the sequential interaction of a number of elements of a single network. The elements in the solar panel are connected in series and in parallel. This is done in order to increase power, voltage and current. Plus, such a connection will protect against the failure of one element – the remaining parts of the circuit.

The batteries are also riddled with so-called diodes. The principle of operation of solar panels is based precisely on these elements. Such diodes protect the panel during partial dimming. During such blackouts, the battery does not interrupt its operation, but produces a quarter less power. The bottom line is that diodes do not allow overheating of solar cells, which during darkening begin to consume electricity instead of generating.

Further, electricity accumulates in the batteries. And after that it is already given to the system. The important point is that the number of parallel and series-connected elements in the solar panel should be calculated so that the voltage that is connected to the batteries exceeds the voltage of the battery itself. Even with the drawdown. In this case, the load current of the solar battery must provide a sufficient amount of charging current. This parameter must be taken into account when calculating solar panels.

Another important factor in the operation of solar panels is net power. This indicator reflects the efficiency of use for the user. Such power is calculated based on the voltage and output current of the installation. And these indicators, in turn, depend on the strength of sunlight that directly hits the panel. By the way, too high temperatures for solar panels are not useful. Indeed, with intense heating by the sun, the so-called electromotive force drops in electrically generating elements. However, the brighter the illumination from the sun, the greater the current generated.

However, the optimal resistance of each panel is different and it depends on the level of efficiency.

  1. In cloudy weather, the battery charge is naturally reduced due to less generation of electricity by the panels. During this process, the receiver receives electricity. In other words, batteries always work either on charge or on discharge. This interaction mechanism is controlled by the controller.
  2. Most often, the operation of the batteries in the circuit is arranged in such a way that they charge very quickly up to 80-90%, and then for a long time they accumulate the remaining charge. To date, the most efficient batteries for use in alternative energy supply systems are gel batteries. Such batteries are maintenance-free and unpretentious in operating conditions. In this case, the service life usually reaches 10 years.